Dental implant surgery is now a commonly used procedure for dental rehabilitation. It is a predictable and secure procedure wherein systemic and local risk factors can lead to significant failure rates. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic health condition which is associated with high blood sugar and it triggers multifarious side effects. Diabetes, as a relative contraindication for implant surgery was controversially tackled. While the number of those patients who suffer from this condition increases, there are many diabetic patients who demand implant procedures.
We tried to find out the best answer to the question, “Do diabetic patients who underwent dental implants have more risks to suffer from complications?” We worked on this through a systematic literature research that is based on the statement of PRISMA. We were able to identify twenty two clinical studies as well as twenty publications of the aggregated literature that were somewhat heterogeneous regarding the methods and the results.
We then concluded that those patients with uncontrollable condition experience impaired osseointegration, higher risk of peri-implantitis as well as increased possibility of dental implant failure. The influence of the duration of this condition is not completely clear. The supportive administration of chlorhexidine and antibiotics appears to enhance implant success. When diabetes has been effectively controlled, implant processes are predictable and safe with a rate of complication that is the same in the case of those healthy patients.
Dental implants are guaranteed predictable and safe processes for dental rehabilitation in persons with diabetes. The survival rating for dental implants surgery doesn’t vary from the survival rate for healthy patients during the first six years, yet within the long term observation of up to twenty years, a lessened dental implant survival could be found in patients with diabetes. Patients who have weakly controlled and managed diabetes appear to have prolonged osseointegration after the implantation.
One year passed and there’s no difference between healthy and diabetic individuals, not even to weakly controlled HbA1c. Thus, we suggest preventing rapid loading of dental implants. In the first few years after the insertion of dental implants, there is no increased risk of peri-implantitis, yet in the long term observation, peri-implant inflammation appears to be high in the case of patients with diabetes. Thus, risk-adapted dental recall will be useful in order to detect the early symptoms of gingivitis that could be easily cured with dental or implant cleanings so as to prevent serious peri-implant inflammation or infection.
We’ve found some hints which good glycemic control enhances osseointegration as well as the implant survival. Therefore, in order to prevent some other chronic side effects, the doctor must ask for HbA1c and when needed, antidiabetic therapy development must be considered. Within the literature, we did not find any evidence that procedures associated with bone augmentation such as guided bone regeneration as well as sinus lifts do come with a more substantial complication as well as failure rate in those patients who have well to fairly well managed diabetes. To enhance implant survival as well as to lessen postoperative complications, supportive therapy that consists of prophylactic antibiotics & chlorhexidine mouth wash is suggested.